Tag Archives: mixed reality

Microsoft’s convergence of chatbots and mixed reality

One of the biggest trends in mixed reality this year is the arrival of chatbots on platforms like HoloLens. Speech commands are a common input for many XR devices. Adding conversational AI to extend these native speech recognition capabilities is a natural next steps toward a future in which personalized virtual assistant backed by powerful AI accompany us in hologram form. They may be relegated to providing us with shopping suggestions, but perhaps, instead, they’ll become powerful custom tools that help make us sharper, give honest feedback, and assist in achieving our personal goals.

If you have followed the development of sci-fi artificial intelligence in television and movies over the years, the move from voice to full holograms will seem natural. In early sci-fi, such as HAL from the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey or the computer from the original Star Trek, computer intelligence was generally represented as a disembodied voice. In more recent incarnations of virtual assistance, such as Star Trek Voyager and Blade Runner 2049, these voices are finally personified by full holograms of the Emergency Medical Hologram and Joi.

In a similar way, Cortana, Alexa, and Siri are slowly moving from our smartphones, Echos, and Invoke devices to our holographic headsets. These are still early days, but the technology is already in place and the future incarnation of our virtual assistants is relatively clear.

The rise of the chatbot

For Microsoft’s personal digital assistant Cortana, who started her life as a hologram in the Halo video games for Xbox, the move to holographic headsets is a bit of a homecoming. It seems natural, then, that when Microsoft HoloLens was first released in 2016, Cortana was already built into the onboard holographic operating system.

Then, in a 2017 article on the Windows Apps Team blog, Building the Terminator Vision HUD in HoloLens, Microsoft showed people how to integrate Azure Cognitive Services into their holographic head-mounted display in order to provide smart object recognition and even translation services as a Terminator-like HUD overlay.

The only thing left to do to get to a smart virtual assistant was to tie together the HoloLens’s built-in Cortana speech capabilities with some AI to create an interactive experience. Not surprisingly, Microsoft was able to fill this gap with the Bot Framework.

Virtual assistants and Microsoft Bot Framework

Microsoft Bot Framework combines AI backed by Azure Cognitive Serviceswith natural-language capabilities. It includes a set of open source SDKs and tools that enable developers to build, test, and connect bots that interact naturally with users. With the Microsoft Bot Framework, it is easy can create a bot that can speak, listen, understand, and even learn from your users over time with Azure Cognitive Services. This chatbot technology is sometimes referred to as conversational AI.

There are several chatbot tools available. I am most familiar with the Bot Framework, so I will be talking about that. Right now, chatbots built with the Bot Framework can be adapted for speech interactions or for text interactions like the UPS virtual assistant example above. They are relatively easy to build and customize using prepared templates and web-based dialogs.

One of my favorite ways to build a chatbot is by using QnA Maker, which lets you simply point to an online FAQ page or upload product documentation to use as the knowledge base for your bot service. QnA Maker then walks you through applying a chatbot personality to your knowledge base and deploying it, usually with no custom coding. What I love about this is that you can get a sophisticated chatbot rolled out in about half a day.

Using the Microsoft Bot Framework, you also have the ability to take full control of the creation process to customize your bot in code. Bot apps can be created in C#, JavaScript, Python or Java. You can extend the capabilities of the Bot Framework with middleware that you either create yourself or bring into your code from third parties. There are even advanced capabilities available for managing complex conversation flows with branches and loops.

Ethical chatbots

Having introduced the idea above of building a Terminator HUD using Cognitive Services, it’s important to also raise awareness about fostering an environment of ethical AI and ethical thinking around AI. To borrow from the book The Future Computed, AI systems should be fair, reliable and safe, private and secure, inclusive, transparent, and accountable. As we build all forms of chatbots and virtual assistants, we should always consider what we intend our intelligent systems to do, as well as concern ourselves with what they might do unintentionally.

The ultimate convergence of AI and mixed reality

Today, chatbots are geared toward integrating skills for commerce like finding directions, locating restaurants, and providing help with a company’s products through virtual assistants. One of the chief research goals driving better chatbots is to personalize the chatbot experience. Achieving a high level of personalization will require extending current chatbots with more AI capabilities. Fortunately, this isn’t a far-future thing. As shown in the Terminator HUD tutorial above, adding Cognitive Services to your chatbots and devices is easy to do.

Because holographic headsets have many external sensors, AI will also be useful for analyzing all this visual and location data and turning it into useful information through the chatbot and Cognitive Services. For instance, cameras can be used to help translate street signs if you are in a foreign city or to identify products when you are shopping and provide helpful reviews.

Finally, AI will be needed to create realistic 3D model representations of your chatbot and overcome the uncanny valley that is currently holding back VR, AR, and MR. When all three elements are in place to augment your chatbot — personalization, computer vision, and humanized 3D modeling — we’ll be that much closer to what we’ve always hoped for — personalized AI that looks out for us as individuals.

Here is some additional reading on the convergence of chatbots and MR you will find helpful:

Magic Leap One vs HoloLens v1 Comparison


I’m currently sitting in my room at the L.A. Grand Hotel waiting for the L.E.A.P. conference to start. I’ve been holding off on this comparison post because I had promised Dennis Vroegop I would give it first as a talk at the Techorama Netherlands conference – which I did last week. I will do a feature comparison based on publicly available information, then highlight features unique to the Magic Leap, and then distinguish subtle but important differences that only become apparent from spending months with these devices at the developer level. Finally I want to point out design improvements in the Magic Leap that are so good for Mixed Reality that I predict they will be incorporated into the next version of HoloLens.

Keep in mind that this is a comparison of two different generations of devices. The Magic Leap One is coming out two years after the HoloLens and would be expected to be better. At the same time, the HoloLens v2 is being released some time in 2019 and can be expected to be better still.

1. Field of View

In raw numbers, the field of view of the Magic Leap One is approximately 25% better than the HoloLens. The HoloLens field of view is estimated to be about 29-30 degrees wide and 17 degrees high. The Magic Leap One is 40 degrees wide by 30 degrees high. There is a corresponding difference in resolution, with the HoloLens offering 1268 by 720 per eye and the Magic Leap One providing 1280 by 960 per eye.

The Magic Leap One uses the same wave guide display technology that the HoloLens does, however, so how did they pump up the FOV? First, the ML1 has a more powerful battery than the HoloLens does, and it’s often been claimed by Microsoft that FOV is largely dependent on the power of the projection. This is probably offset, though, by the fact that the ML1 is using more power to project in two planes instead of only one like the HoloLens does (with 6 Waveguide layers compared to 4 in the HoloLens).

Another trick is that the waveguides in the Magic Leap are closer to the wearer’s eyes than they are in the HoloLens. As a consequence, you can wear glasses underneath the HoloLens while you cannot do so comfortably under the Magic Leap device.

In addition to this, Jasper Brekelmans and Dennis Vroegop suggested over coffees along the Amstel River (in a conversation about David Copperfield) that because one’s peripheral vision is closed off in the ML1, the perceived FOV may be even larger than the actual. The theory behind this is that, due to the widespread use of glasses, we have become used to not paying attention to our peripheral vision so much and consequently are comfortable with this tunneling of our vision.

Blocking off the peripheral field of view might cause issues in certain industrial settings, but the general effect is that what you can see as a proportion of your overall FOV is much larger in the ML1 than it is in the HoloLens. Or another way of putting this is that the empty areas of your FOV, as a proportion of your available FOV, is much smaller than it is in the HoloLens.

On top of this, the aspect ratio of the FOV in the ML1 is much taller than in the HoloLens, which may end up doing a better job at accommodating vertical seccaddic movements of the eyes.


Because of the narrower gap between the device and the wearer’s eyes, the Magic Leap can’t accommodate glasses as the Hololens can. To compensate, Magic Leap is developing relationships with online eyeglass manufacturers to provide prescription inserts that can be placed in front of the waveguides and magnetically lock into place. There’s some controversy over whether this is a good or a bad thing. Some developers have expressed concern that this will make demoing Magic Leap at events more difficult than demoing HoloLens, since those with poor vision will either not be able to participate or, alternatively, we will be forced to carry around a large suitcase of prescription inserts to every event.

On the other hand, when I think of what MR will be like in the future, I tend to think of them resembling real glasses (and not electronic contacts, which simply scare me). When they reach the size and ubiquity of modern glasses, it will make sense for each person to have their own personalized device with their appropriate prescription. Magic Leap is on the right track in this case. It’s just in the intervening period that we have to figure out how to share our limited, expensive devices with others.

HoloLens v1 Magic Leap One
Price $3000 – $5000 $2300
OS Windows Android variant
Field of View ~30 deg x 17 deg 40 deg x 30 deg
Resolution 1268 x 720 per eye 1280 x 960 per eye
Depth Sensor Time of Flight Time of Flight
Display Type Wave Guide Wave Guide
Hand Gestures Recognized 2 9
Underlying comic book technology Light Engines Light Fields
Controller Click 6 DOF
Hand tracking limited fingers (3 joints each)
Processing unit Above nose Light pack
Audio Spatial Sound Spatial Sound

2. Hardware Specs (It’s all about the battery)

HoloLens v1 Magic Leap One
Intel Atom x5-Z8100
1.04 GHz
Intel Airmont (14nm)
4 Logical Processors
64-bit capable
2 Denver 2.0 64-bit cores + 4 ARM Cortex A57 64-bit cores
(2 A57’s and 1 Denver accessible to applications)
8086h (Intel) GPU. NVIDIA Pascal™, 256 CUDA cores; Graphic APIs: OpenGL 4.5, Vulkan, OpenGL ES 3.3+
64GB Storage 128GB Storage

The Magic Leap One is overall a much beefier machine than the current HoloLens. While both the HoloLens and the Magic Leap One advertise a 3 hour battery life, these can mean vastly different things. In order to drive all of its extra hardware, the Magic Leap One needs a much beefier battery. The ML1 is powered by a twin-cell battery with 36.77 Wh, running at 3.83 V.  The HoloLens has a 1.65 Wh battery.

For overall performance, the larger battery means the world meshes (i.e. surface reconstruction, world mapping) are much denser and more frequently updated on the Magic Leap than on the HoloLens. The Time-of-Flight depth camera can fire off more frequently and for longer periods.

The larger battery and beefier specs also translate to much better 3D performance. The HoloLens is able to run 30,000 polygons at 60 fps. Beyond that, the fps begins to drop. The Magic Leap runs upwards of 1 million polygons at 60 fps.

On the downside, that more powerful battery rig needs a fan to cool it whereas the HoloLens is passively cooled. In laboratory and medical scenarios where a sterile environment must be maintained, active cooling with a fan could be a problem.

3. The HoloLens and Tracking

The HoloLens uses 4 monochrome cameras (“environment aware sensors”), an accelerometer, magnetometer and gyroscope in a sensor fusion configuration, and a custom HPU to perform head tracking. The Magic Leap one has a similar setup minus the HPU.

The HoloLens tracking is still somewhat better than the ML1’s. It loses tracking less frequently and digital content is less jittery when seen up close or while the wearer is in motion.

Overall, though, tracking performance is fairly close between the two devices.

4. Magic Leap Extras

The ML1 has a couple of features that are simply outside of the box. One is the eye tracking. There are inward facing cameras that track the wearer’s eye movements as invisible IR flashes.

The tracking is not continuous and is captured at a much lower resolution level than the displays. While they shouldn’t be used for direct user interactions, they are great for providing context for other interactions. It would be great if someone would write a keyboard that uses eye tracking to select keys. In the meantime, I wrote this heat vision demo that uses eye tracking to burn the walls of my house — I think of it as “Superman with a Migraine”. Note the eye-blink tracking.

The other cool extra in the Magic Leap is two planes of focus. Most VR devices have a single plane of focus at infinity. The HoloLens has a single plane of focus set at two meters.

In the magic leap one, when you look at near objects, objects further away (on the outer plane) seem to go out of focus. When you look at objects close up, the objects further away go out of focus. I would guess that the close plane is around a meter and the out one about 3 meters but I’m not really sure. In the Lumin OS .91, there is also a sporadic green shift in the near plane (which I expect will be fixed soon).

5. The Tether


The Magic Leap One is made up of two parts: the Light Pack and the Light Wear. They are connected by a cable. The Light Wear contains all the sensors, projectors and displays while the Light Wear, worn at the hip, contains all the computer bits and the battery.

This is an engineering choice that allows for a much larger power source. Without the tether solution, a large battery would not be possible. Without the large battery, the ML1’s enhanced depth sensing, improved graphics processing and larger field of view would not be possible.

In addition, this design makes the Magic Leap a much more comfortable fit on the head. The weight distribution is better than on the HoloLens, it is lighter, and it doesn’t require extra straps.

The tether solution is actually so effective that I would be surprised if the HoloLens v2 does not follow a similar design. The original one-piece “tetherless” solution Microsoft came up with for the HoloLens was visionary, but severely limiting.

6. Developing

If you have ever developed in Unity for the Android (or really any other device) then you know how to develop for Magic Leap in Unity. You press a button and your app compiles to an .mpk image (Android uses “.apk” file extensions). If your device is attached, you can deploy directly by clicking on “build and run”.

Magic Leap apps can also be built with the Unreal Engine.

HoloLens apps run on a Unity player sandboxed in a UWP app. The development cycle consequently involves exporting your HoloLens app as a Visual Studio project targeting UWP and then building and deploying in UWP. In general (and it may just be me) this has been tedious.

It became even worse when the immersive WinMR devices (or occluded WinMR – basically Microsoft VR) devices came out last year and the basic tools used for HoloLens development, known as the HoloLens Toolkit and then the Mixed Reality Toolkit, was expanded to supported both kinds of device. Because of some issues with Unity, building for WinMR required certain versions of Unity and above while developing for HoloLens required certain versions of Unity and below. And this state went on for several months to the point that finding the correct Windows SDK paired with the right MRTK version paired with the correct Unity version became a closely kept alchemical formula passed from developer to developer.

This experience may not be the same for everyone but it left me a bit traumatized. By contrast, Magic Leap development is simply a pleasure. I can build and see the results very quickly in my device. I can wear the device for hours at a time. I typically only stop development when the ML battery runs down and I have to let it recharge. I don’t have a Magic Leap Hub, which would allow me to charge while I dev, but I intend to get one.

The Magic Leap toolkit is still not quite as capable as the open source Mixed Reality Toolkit managed by Stephen Hodgson and others.

The Magic Leap also has a simulator rather than an emulator for developing without a device. This actually makes sense since the Hololens emulator runs the HoloLens OS in a virtual machine, which might be tricky given the much larger specs of the Magic Leap.

7. Interactions


The Magic Leap supports robust hand and gesture tracking as well as a 6DOF controller. The DOF in 6DOF stands for degrees of freedom. We know not only the direction the controller is pointing in (3DOF) but also its position.


I love the controller. I love it so much it made me finally admit to myself that I hate the HoloLens tap gesture. No one ever gets it right. It’s awkward. It’s uncomfortable and makes me feel like I’m performing a kung fu move.


By contrast, a controller just makes sense. The UX for MR, I believe, should always support three layers of interactions. Mixed reality UX should support hand gestures for ease of use. It should fall back to the controller for precision movements. It should finally fall back on the delta pad on the controller for accessibility.

For all of my antipathy toward the HoloLens tap, however, I have to say I miss the HoloLens bloom gesture (escape), which I keep trying to use in Magic Leap to no avail. Instead, in Magic Leap holding the controller’s Home button for three seconds is the escape gesture, which I don’t really like. It also bothers me that hand gestures aren’t supported in the core desktop (the Icon grid) – but this is still the Creator’s Edition (translation: dev edition) after all.

[Late edit thanks to SH: it should also be pointed out that the Lumin OS (the desktop layer) currently doesn’t support hand gestures, which I find baffling. For now, you can’t get past the login and other initial screens without a paired phone or a controller.]

Summing Up

So is the Magic Leap One better than the HoloLens v1? Oh yes. By leaps and bounds.

1. The development workflow is much more straight forward and pleasant.

2. The increased battery size and beefier hardware makes it possible to do things, performance wise, that the HoloLens tended to stop us from doing. Phone and tablet level experiences are doable now.

3. The Magic Leap One has a much better interaction model than the HoloLens does. How did anyone ever do MR without a controller? (Actually, everyone used an XBox controller in the end in order to get any sort of real work done, but we don’t talk about that much.)

Is it time to jump back into Mixed Reality development?

If you spent $3.2K to $5K for a HoloLens, then you owe it to yourself to spend $2,300 for a Magic Leap. It’s the device you originally wanted. The HoloLens was a brilliant device back in 2016 and really the first of its kind, but it had limitations. Many of the projects you were never able to realize in HoloLens (in the small dev community that developed around HoloLens, we all know what these are) are now doable with the improved Magic Leap specs. Additionally, your enterprise stories are much easier to sell with the controller. Instead of spending 5 minutes of your precious pitch time explaining how tap works, you can now just let your potential investors and clients go straight into the demo with a controller they basically already know how to use.

Is there a future in spatial computing?

Now there is. There was a brief pause between 2016 and the middle of 2018, but we currently have two great devices available with another shoe dropping soon. Microsoft will be coming out with a HoloLens v2 sometime in the first half of 2019 which I would predict will implement the tethered design Magic Leap is using. This will be an improvement over the current Magic Leap which in turn will be driven to improve its own tech.

Microsoft has an advantage because it started this journey back in the Kinect days and has the resources of Microsoft Research to draw on. Magic Leap has an advantage because, well, they aren’t Microsoft and don’t face the internal political problems a large tech giant does (though no doubt they have their own). More importantly, they have their own U.S.-based production lines (as well as production lines in Mexico) and are less reliant on China, which hopefully means they are capable of much quicker turn-arounds and initial SKU production.

When do we get smaller devices that wear like glasses?

I have no idea, but try to think in terms of 3, 5, 10 years. We always overestimate what can be done in 3 years but always underestimate how much things will change in 10. Somewhere in the middle, we will intersect with our MR futures.

Your comments, corrections and criticisms are welcome in the comments below. I’ll try to keep up with them and incorporate what you say into the main article as appropriate.

Is there a mixed-reality dress code?

Not to derail us, but how should MR devs dress?


My feeling is we shouldn’t be wearing the standard enterprise / consultant software dev uniform of a golf shirt and khaki pants with dog walker shoes. That isn’t really who we are. ORMs are not the highlight of our day and our job doesn’t end when the code compiles. We actually care how it works and even if everything works we care if it is easy for the user to understand our app. We even occasionally open up Photoshop and Cinema4D.


    We aren’t web devs. Hoodie,  jeans and Converse aren’t appropriate either. We don’t chase after the latest javascript framework every six weeks. We worry pathologically about memory allocation and performance. Our world isn’t obsessively flat. It’s obsessively three dimensional. Our uniform should reflect this, also.


      This is the hard part, but here’s the start of a suggestion of the general style (subdued expensive) for men (because I have no clue about women’s fashion): faded black polo shirt buttoned to the top, slightly linty black velveteen jacket, black jeans, Hermès pocket square, leather dress shoes. It signals concern with UI but not excessive concern. Comfort is also important (UX) as is the quality of the materials (the underlying code and software architecture).

      Finally, MR/VR/AR/XR development is premium work and deserves premium rates. The clothes we wear should reflect this fundamental rate, indicating that if what we are paid doesn’t support our clothing habit (real or imagined), we will walk away (the ability to walk away from a contract being the biggest determiner of pricing).


        Black, of course, suggests the underlying 70’s punk mentality that drives innovation. MR devs are definitely not grunge rockers. The pocket handkerchief suggests flair.

        [This post was excerpted from a discussion on the Microsoft MVP Mixed Reality list.]

        A User’s Guide to the terms VR, AR, MR and XR – with a tangent about pork


        Virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality and XR (or xR) are terms floating around that seem to describe the same things – but maybe not – and sometimes people get very angry if you use the terms incorrectly (or at least they say they do).

        The difficulty is that these terms come from different sources and for different reasons, yet the mind naturally seeks to find order and logic in the world it confronts. A great English historical example is the way Anglo-Saxon words for animals have complementary Norman words for the cooked versions of those beasts: cow and beef (boeuf), pig and pork (porc), sheep and mutton (mouton). It is how the mind deals with a superfluity of words – we try to find a reason to keep them all.


        So as an experiment and a public service, here’s a guide to using these terms in a consistent way. My premise is that these terms are a part of natural language and describe real things rather than marketing terms meant to either boost products or boost personal agendas (such as the desire to be the person who coined a new term). Those constraints actually make it pretty easy to fit all these phrases into a common framework and uses grammar to enforce semantic distinctions:

        1) Virtual reality is a noun for a 3D simulated reality that you move through by moving your body. A sense of space is an essential component of VR. VR includes 360 videos as well as immersive 3D games on devices like the Oculus Rift, HTC Vive and Microsoft Immersive headsets.

        2) Augmented reality is a noun for an experience that combines digital objects and the real world, typically by overlaying digital content on top of a video of a real world (e.g. Pokémon Go) or by overlaying digital content on top of a transparent display (e.g. HoloLens, Meta, Magic Leap, Daqri).

        3) Mixed reality is an adjective that modifies nouns in order to describe both virtual and augmented reality experiences. For instance:

        a. A mixed reality headset enables virtual reality to be experienced.

        b. The Magic Leap device will let us have mixed reality experiences.

        4) xR is an umbrella term for the nouns virtual reality and augmented reality. You use xR generically when you are talking about broad trends or ambiguously when you are talking in a way that includes both VR and AR (for instance, I went to an event about xR where different MR experiences were on display). xR may, optionally, also cover AI and ML (aren’t they the same thing?).

        This isn’t necessarily how anyone has consistently used these terms in 2017, but I feel like there is a trend towards these usages. I’m going to try to use them in this way in 2018 and see how it goes.


        On Saturday, October 29th, Dennis Vroegop and I will be running a Mixed Reality Workshop as part of the DEVintersection conference in Las Vegas. Dennis is both a promoter and trainer in Mixed Reality and has made frequent appearances on European TV talking about this emerging technology as well as consulting on and leading several high-profile mixed reality projects. I’ve worked as a developer on several commercial mixed reality experiences while also studying and writing about the various implications and scenarios for using mixed reality in entertainment and productivity apps.

        Our workshop will cover the fundamentals of building for mixed reality through the first half of the day. Through the rest of the day, we will work with you to build your own mixed reality application of your choice—so come with ideas of what you’d like to make. And if you aren’t sure what you want to create in mixed reality, we’ll help you with that, too.

        Here’s an outline of what we plan to cover in the workshop:

        1. Hardware: an overview of the leading mixed reality devices and how they work.
        2. Tools: an introduction to the toolchain used for mixed reality development emphasizing Unity and Visual Studio.
        3. Hello Unity: hands-on development of an MR app using gestures and voice commands.
        4. SDK: we’ll go over the libraries used in MR development, what they provide and how to use them.
        5. Raycasting – covering some things you never have to worry about in 2D programming.
        6. Spatial Mapping and Spatial Understanding – how MR devices recognize the world around them.
        7. World Anchors – fixing virtual objects in the real world.

        Break for lunch

            8.  Dennis and I will help you realize your mixed reality project. At the end of the workshop, we’ll do a show and tell to share what you’ve built and go over next steps if you want to publish your work.

        We are extremely excited to be doing this workshop at DEVintersection. Mixed Reality is forecasted to be a multi-billion dollar industry by 2020. This is your opportunity to get in at the ground floor with some real hands-on experience.

        (Be sure to use the promo code ASHLEY for a discount on your registration.)

        Virtual Names for Augmented Reality (Or Why “Mixed-Reality” is a Bad Moniker)


        It’s taken about a year but now everyone who’s interested can easily distinguish between augmented reality and virtual reality. Augmented reality experiences like the one provided by HoloLens combine digital and actual content. Virtual reality experiences like that provided by Oculus Rift are purely digital experiences. Both have commonalities such as stereoscopy, head tracking and object positioning to create the illusion that the digital objects introduced into a user’s field of view have a physical presence and can be walked around.

        Sticklers may point out that there is a third kind of experience called a head-up display in which informatics are displayed at the top corner of a user’s field of view to provide digital content and text. Because head-up display devices like the now passe Google Glass do not overlay digital content on top of real world content, but instead displays them more or less side-by-side, it is not considered augmented reality.

        Even with augmented reality, however, a distinction can be drawn between informational content and digital content made up of 3D models. The informational type of augmented reality, as in the picture of my dog Marcie above, is often called the Terminator view, after the first-person (first-cyborg?) camera perspective used as a story telling device in the eponymous movie. The other type of augmented reality content has variously been described inaccurately as holography by marketers or, more recently, mixed reality.

        The distinction is being drawn largely to distinguish what might be called hard AR from the more typical 2D overlays on smart phones that help you find a pizza restaurant. Mixed reality is a term intended to emphasize the point that not all AR is created equal.

        Abandoning the term “augmented reality” in favor of “mixed reality” to describe HoloLens and Magic Leap, however, seems a bit drastic and recalls Gresham’s Law, the observation that bad money drives out good money. When the principle is generalized, as Albert Jay Knock did in his brilliant autobiography Memoirs of a Superfluous Man, it simply means that counterfeit and derivative concepts will drive out the authentic ones.

        This is what appears to be happening here. Before the advent of the iPhone, researchers were already working on augmented reality. The augmented reality experiences they were building, in turn, were not Terminator vision style. Early AR projects like KARMA from 1992 were like the type of experiences that are now being made possible in Redmond and Hollywood, Florida. Terminator vision apps only came later with the mass distribution of smart phones and the fact that flat AR experiences are the only type of AR those devices can support.

        I prefer the term augmented reality because it contains within itself a longer perspective on these technologies. Ultimately, the combination of digital and real content is intended to uplift us and enhance our lives. If done right, it has the ability to re-enchant everyday life. Compared to those aspirations, the term “mixed reality” seems overly prosaic and fatally underwhelming.

        I will personally continue to use the moniker “mixed reality” as a generic term when I want to talk about both virtual reality and augmented reality as a single concept. Unless the marketing juggernaut overtakes me, however, I will give preference to the more precise and aspirational term “augmented reality” when talking about HoloLens, Magic Leap and cool projects like RoomAlive.